Disease name: Found in Alaska/US? Likelihood of coming to Alaska: Symptoms of disease: Affects what part of reindeer? Transmissable from reindeer to other animals or to humans? Can agent survive outside of the animal? Testing method: Testing required? Treatment: State programs: Federal program: Additional comments:
Brucellosis Yes. Present. Current big concerns are warbles, nasal bots. Spontaneous abortion, swollen joints & testicles. Other conditions caused by the agent include spondylitis, metritis, and bursitis. Reproductive disease; decreased production. Yes. Undulant fever in humans. Yes. Under selected environmental conditions (darkness, cool temperatures, high C02) agent can survive up to 2 years. Blood serum analysis. Yes, for intrastate & interstate transport. One-time vaccination after 6 months old. Antibiotic can be effective. 5-year disease-free certification program. Brucellosis is nationally notifiable disease and reportable to local health authority.    
Parsites (various) Yes. Present. Current big concerns are warbles, nasal bots Changed appearance and/or behavior.Warbles cause lesions under hide. Decreased productivity. Not if meat is cooked well. Yes. Serological test could be used to screen for Sarcocysts and Toxoplasma.   Ivermectin or levamisole (alternate) twice yearly.      
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) Not in reindeer. Not likely. None in reindeer. At least lungs; ongoing research about lesions. Probably, but virtually no data at this time. Yes, in contaminated food & water.TB agent can survive in manure and in droplets of saliva coughed into the air. Current skin test is flawed; research for new blood test, better skin test. In many, but not all cases. Not practical for livestock. Varies by state. Requirements for interstate movements. Uniform Methods and Rules, developed by federal and state animal health authorities and the livestock industry, give procedures for eradication of bovine TB. TB is a notifiable disease in wild, park and farmed deer per the Tuberculosis (Deer) Order 1989.
West Nile Virus Alaska: Yes Possible via migratory birds. Abnormal behavior, fever, head tilt, difficulty swallowing, paralysis. Affects eating. Paralysis. Fatal. Not likely. Yes, in mosquitoes & birds. Brain, spinal cord tissue analysis. Yes, if any signs of WNV appear. Vaccine is being studied for use in reindeer. Surveillance of wild birds, testing. Surveillance of wild birds, domestic animals. Treatment research. Testing. VMOs are to notify APHIS of livestock offered for slaughter with CNS clinical signs of WNV or any other CNS disorders.  
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Alaskan/U.S. reindeer: No. Other deer species in Canada/lower 48: Yes. Unknown threat to reindeer; small threat to deer/elk in southeast Alaska. [As seen in other deer species:] Chronic weight loss, abnormal behavior, increased drinking & urination. In most cases, CWD occurs in adult animals. Fatal. Unknown. Yes. Infective prions can survive in the soil for over 5 years. Brain, spinal cord tissue analysis. Yes, if any signs of CWD appear. None. CWD Certification Program. No cervid importation. Test research.Monitor hunted deer, elk. In each state where CWD has been detected in wildlife, state wildlife agencies have enacted response/or management plans. Surveillance of herds. If infected, herd is quarantined or killed. Surveillance for CWD in free-ranging deer and elk in Colorado and Wyoming has been ongoing since 1983. An extensive nationwide surveillance effort was started in 1997-98 to better define the geographic distribution of CWD in free-ranging cervids in the US.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) No. Unknown. Blisters in mouth & on feet, excessive salivation, lameness. Very contagious. Weight loss, decreased productivity. No, but humans can carry & spread disease. Not likely. Lab test required to determine exact disease. Yes, if any signs of FMD appear. No treatment, vaccines exist. Surveillance, depopulation if FMD occurs. Surveillance. Depopulation if FMD occurs.  
Mad Cow Disease: other TSE's besides CWD, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) No. Not likely. Depression, incoordination, abnormal behavior, abnormal neurological signs. Brain, nervous system. Fatal. Possible through eating meat. BSE does not spread horizontally by contact. BSE infective prions can survive in the soil or on utensils. Brain, spinal cord test, possible protein tests. Yes, if any signs of TSE appear. None. State normally required to follow federal guidelines, but each state can have their own rules. Intensive surveillance. No meat or animal trade with countries with Mad Cow Disease. Strict import restrictions in place since 1989.  
1) http://www.cattle.ca/INDUSTRY/FactSheets/FAQ%20TB.pdf
Frequently asked questions on Bovine TB (Canadian Cattlemen's Association)
2) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_g.htm
General Information on Brucellosis.
3) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_t.htm
Technical Information on Brucellosis.
4) http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/default.htm
Disease surveillance and Control
5) http://aphisweb.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps//cwd/
Chronic Wasting Disease
6) Surveillance for Bovine TB in the United States, Robert M. Meyers DVM, MS, USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services; April 1, 2001
7) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/issues/bse/bse-overview.html
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), an overview
8) http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FSISNotices/12-03.htm
FSIS NOTICE- West Nile Virus (WNV).
9) Notes from Managing Reindeer Health: A Workshop on Reindeer Diseases, July 2-3, 2003, Pioneer Hall, Nome, Alaska
(notes taken by Kumi Rattenbury, Rose Fosdick)