Reindeer Roundup! A K-12 Educator's Guide to Reindeer in Alaska
Circular 70: Air Transport of Alaskan Reindeer(pdf)
Circular 72: Raising Orphan Reindeer Fawns(pdf)
Circular 74: Construction & Use of a Reindeer Fawn Separator for Injury Prevention(pdf)
Circular 75: Record Keeping for Reindeer Herds(pdf)
Circular 78: Quality Assessment of Reindeer Meat(pdf)
Circular 86: Corral Design and Operation for Improved Handling Efficiency and Reindeer Safety(pdf)
Circular 87: Congenital Defects in Reindeer: A Production Issue(pdf)
Circular 94 Rev. 2001: Design for a Portable Reindeer Crush(pdf)
----Unpublished revised Design for a Portable Reindeer Crush(pdf)
Circular 96: Management and Medical Aspects of Reindeer Farming: Examining the Basics(pdf)
Circular 99: Producing & Processing Reindeer Velvet Antler (.pdf format)
Circular 100: Reindeer Calf Productivity & Survival on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska (.pdf format)
Circular 116: Model to Evaluate Potential Production and Income Responses of Reindeer Herds Under Different Management Strategies (.pdf format)
Misc. Pub. 90-4: Reindeer Health Aide Manual(.pdf format)
Bulletin 59: Eskimos, reindeer and land  (.pdf format)
Bulletin 81: Population Dynamics: An Introduction for Alaskan Reindeer Herders (.pdf format)

Journal Articles

Pietsch, G., Finstad, G.L., Bevins, J., & Prichard, A.K. 1999. Antibiotic treatment and post-handling survival of reindeer calves in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 35(4): 735-740.

Prichard, A.K., Finstad, G.L., & Shain, D.H. 1999. Lactation in yearling Alaskan reindeer: Implications for growth, reproduction, and survival. Rangifer. 19(2): 77-84.

Prichard A.K., Finstad, G.L., & Shain, D.H. 1999.Factors affecting velvet antler weights in free-ranging reindeer in Alaska. Rangifer. 19(2): 71-76.

Finstad, G.L., & Prichard, A.K. 2000.Growth and body weight of free-range reindeer in western Alaska. Rangifer. 20(4): 221-227.

Bader, H.R., & Finstad, G. 2001. Conflicts between livestock and wildlife: An analysis of legal liabilities arising from reindeer and caribou competition on the Seward Peninsula of Western Alaska. Environmental Law. 31(3): 549-580.

Duffy, L.K, Duffy, R.S., Finstad, G. & Gerlach, C. 2004. A note on mercury levels in the hair of Alaskan reindeer. Science of the Total Environment. 339: 273-276.

Finstad, G. L., Kielland, K. K.; Schneider, W. S. 2006. Reindeer Herding in Transition: Historical and Modern Day Challenges for Alaskan Reindeer Herders. Nomadic Peoples, Volume 10, Number 2: 31-49(19).

Rincker, P. J., Bechtel, P. J., Finstad, G., van Buuren, R. G. C., Killefer, J & McKeith, F. K. 2006. Similarities and differences in composition and selected sensory attributes of reindeer, caribou and beef. Journal of Muscle Foods 17, 65-78.

Finstad, G.L., Wiklund, E., Long, K., Rincker, P.J., Oliveira, A.C.M. & Bechtel, P.J. 2007. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality. Rangifer. 27(1): 59-75.

Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Johansson, L., Aguiar, G. & Bechtel, P. J. 2008. Carcass composition and yield of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) steers and effects of electrical stimulation applied during field slaughter on meat quality. Meat Science, 78, 185-193.

Cebrian, M., Kielland, K., Finstad, G. 2008. Forage Quality and Reindeer Productivity: Multiplier Effects Amplified by Climate Change. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. Volume 40, Number 1: 48-54.

Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Worker, S. & Bechtel, P. J. 2008. Effects of early castration on carcass composition, yield and quality characteristics of meat from young reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) bulls and steers. Rangifer. 28:1-8.

Evans, A. L., Bey, R. F., Schoster, J. V., Gaarder, J. E., Finstad, G. L. 2008. Preliminary Studies on the Etiology of Keratoconjunctivitis in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Calves in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44(4): 1051-1055.

Rattenbury, K., Kielland, K., Finstad, G., Schneider, W. 2009. A reindeer herder's perspective on caribou, weather and socio-economic change on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Polar Research 28, 71-88.

Christie, A., Finstad, G. 2009. Reindeer in The "Great Land": Alaska's Red Meat Industry. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 10:354-373.

Lokken J.A., Finstad, G.L., Dunlap K.L., and L.K. Duffy. 2009. Mercury in lichens and reindeer hair from Alaska: 2005-2007 pilot survey. Polar Record. 45, 368-374

Finstad, G.L., Kielland, K. 2011. Landscape Variation in the Diet and Productivity of Reindeer in Alaska Based on Stable Isotope Analyses. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 43(4):543-554.

Evans, A.L., das Neves, C.G., Finstad, G.L., Beckmen, K.B. ,Skjerve, E., Nymo, I.H., Tryland, M. 2012. Evidence of Alphaherpesvirus Infections in Alaskan Caribou and Reindeer. BMC Veterinary Research 2012, 8:5

Verocai, G.G., Lejeune, L, Finstad, G.L., Kutz, S.J. 2013. A Nearctic parasite in a Palearctic host: Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) infecting semi-domesticated reindeer in Alaska. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2 (2013) 119-123.

Wenjun Chen, Lori White, Jan Z. Adamczewski, Bruno Croft, Kerri Garner, Jody S. Pellissey, Karin Clark, Ian Olthof, Rasim Latifovic, Greg L. Finstad. 2014. Assessing the Impacts of Summer Range on Bathurst Caribou’s Productivity and Abundance since 1985. Natural Resources, 2014,5,130-145.

Eva Wiklund, Mustafa Farouk, Greg Finstad. 2014. Venison: Meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)Animal Frontiers, 2014 4: 4:55-61.

Conference Proceedings

Wiklund E, Finstad G, Bechtel P. 2004. Effects of electrical stimulation on the technological quality of reindeer M. longissimus. Poster and abstract. 13th Nordic Conference on Reindeer Research, 23-25 August, Røros, Norway.

Wiklund E, Finstad G, Mulley R. 2004. Carcass treatments to improve meat quality. Presentation and abstract. 13th Nordic Conference on Reindeer Research, 23-25 August, Røros, Norway.

Finstad G, Wiklund E. 2004. Production of reindeer meat in Alaska. Presentation and abstract. 5th Circumpolar Agricultural Conference, 27-30 September, Umeå, Sweden.

Finstad, G, Bechtel, P, Wiklund, E, Rincker, PJ, Long, K. 2005. Sensory and technological properties of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) or reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Poster and abstract. 2005 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeteing, 16-20 July, New Orleans, USA.

Wiklund, E, Finstad, G, Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Seasonal variation in carcass quality of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Proceedings: 51th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 7-12 August, Baltimore, USA.

Wiklund, E. 2005. Slaktkroppshantering för bättre köttkvalitet (Carcass treatment for improved meat quality). Rangifer Report 10, 99-103 (in Swedish with English abstract).

Wiklund, E, Finstad, G. 2006. Circumpolar reindeer management. Presentation (E. Wiklund invited speaker), abstract and proceedings. 4th World Deer Congress, 20-22 April , Melbourne, Australia.

Johansson, L, Wiklund, E, Aguiar, G, Bechtel, PJ, Finstad, G. 2006. Effects of electrical stimulation on sensory quality of reindeer meat. Proceedings: 52nd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 13-18 August, Dublin, Ireland.

Wiklund, E, Johansson, L, Aguiar, G, Bechtel, PJ, Finstad, G. 2006. Seasonal variation in sensory quality of meat from Alaska reindeer bulls and steers. Poster and abstract. 14th Nordic Conference on Reindeer Research, 21-22 March, Helsinki, Finland.

Wiklund, E., Malmfors, G. & Finstad, G. 2006. Reindeer meat - is it always tender, tasty and healthy? Presentation (E. Wiklund invited speaker) and abstract. 14th Nordic Conference on Reindeer Research, 21-22 March, Helsinki, Finland.

Bechtel, P. J., Wiklund, E., Finstad, G. & Oliveira, A. C. M. 2006. Lipid composition of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Poster and abstract. 2006 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, 24-28 June, Orlando, USA.

Finstad, G., Steele, C. & Gray, T. 2006. Range management in Alaska: Reindeer herders on the fast track. Proceedings: 3rd National Conference on Grazing Lands, 11-13 December, St. Louis Mo, USA.

Bechtel, P. J., Wiklund, E., Wu, T & Finstad, G. 2007. Storage shelf-life and consumer acceptance of pre-cooked reindeer meat products. 2007 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, 24-28 June, Chicago, USA.

Wiklund, E., Malmfors, G. & Finstad, G. 2007. Renkött - är det alltid mört, gott och nyttigt? Rangifer Report 12, 71-77 (in Swedish with English abstract).

Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Worker, S. & Aguiar, G. 2007. Carcass composition and quality characteristics of meat from young reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) bulls and steers. 12th Arctic Ungulate Conference, 8-13 August, Yakutsk, Russia.

Worker, S., Finstad, G. 2008. Introduction of nonindigenous plants to Alaska’s Seward Peninsula: A consequence of new reindeer management strategies? 38th International Arctic Workshop, 5-7 March, 2008, Boulder CO, USA.



Finstad, G. 2008. Applied Range Ecology Of Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska.

Master of Science

Carlson, S. 2005. Economic Impact of Reindeer-Caribou Interactions On The Seward Peninsula.

Cebrian, M. 2005. Effects Of Simulated Climate Change On The Reproductive Phenology Of Cottongrass: Implications For Growth And Reproduction Of Reindeer And Caribou On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska.

Oleson, H. 2005. Changing Strategies in Seward Peninsula Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Management

Rattenbury, K. 2006. Reindeer Herding, Weather And Environmental Change On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska.

Moore, K. E. 2011. Collaborative Monitoring of Seward Peninsula, Alaska Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Grazing Lands.

St. Martin, M. L. 2012. Ecological Development of A Management Plan For Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) On St. George Island, Alaska.


Andrews, Clarence, L. The Eskimo and His Reindeer in Alaska. The Caxon Printers, Ltd. Caldwell, Idaho. 1939.

Beach, Hugh. A Year in Lapland: Guest of the Reindeer Herders. University of Washington Press. 2001. 256 pp.

Conasty, Gerry. Reindeer Herders of the Mackenzie Delta. Firefly Books. 2004. 96 pp.

Ederer, Bernard, F. Bingo, Gallant Reindeer Dog. Exposition Press, Hicksville, New York. 1977.

Hadwen, Seymour, I. Reindeer in Alaska. Shorey’s Bookstore, Seattle, Washington. 1973. 104 pp.

Murray, Keith, A. Reindeer and Gold. Center for Pacific Studies, Bellingham, Washington. 1988.

North, Dick. Arctic Exodus: The Last Great Trail Drive. MacMillan of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 1991.

Post, Gordon. Raising Reindeer for Pleasure and Profit. 1998. 92 pp.

Postell, Alice. Where Did the Reindeer Come From? Alaska Experience, the First Fifty Years. Amaknak Press, Portland, Oregon. 1990.

Rausch, V. R. and D. L. Baldwin (eds.). The Yukon Relief Expedition and the Journal of Carl Johan Sakariassen. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, Alaska. 2002.

Rinaldo, Peter, M. The Great Reindeer Caper: The Missionary and the Miners. Dorpete Press. 1997.

Seveck, Chester, A. Longest Reindeer Herder. Arctic Circle Enterprises. 1973.

Stern, Richard, O., Edward, L. Arobio, Larry L. Naylor, and Wayne C. Thomas. Eskimos, Reindeer, and Land. Agricultural Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Bulletin 59. 1980.

Took, Richard. Running with Reindeer: Encounters in Russian Lapland. Westview Press, London, England. 2003. 365 pp.

Tower, Elizabeth, A. Reading, Religion, and Reindeer: Sheldon Jackson’s Legacy to Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska. 1988.

Vorren, Rnulv and Ornulv Vorren. Saami, Reindeer, and Gold in Alaska: the Emigration of Saami from Norway to Alaska. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL. 1994. 172pp.

Children's Books

Arnold, Caroline. Reindeer. Scholastic Books. 1993.

Bernhard, Emery, and Durga Bernhard. Reindeer. Holiday House, New York. 1994.

Brett, Jan. The Wild Christmas Reindeer. Putnam Publishing Group, New York. 1990.

Denzel, Justin, F. Snowfoot: White Reindeer of the Arctic. Garrard Publishing Company, Champaign, Illinois. 1976.

Kingman, Lee. The Secret Journey of the Silver Reindeer. Doubleday, New York. 1968. 93 pp.

Kvale, Velma, R. Tobuk, Reindeer Herder. T. S. Denison Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1968. 112pp.

Lepthien, Emilie, U. Reindeer. Children’s Press. 1994.

Lightener Hopf, Alice. Biography of an American Reindeer. Putnam Publishing Group, New York. 1976.

McCaughrean, Geraldine. How the Reindeer got their Antlers. Holiday House, New York. 2000. 32 pp.

McDonald, Mary Ann. Reindeer. Childs World, Plymouth, Minnesota. 1998. 32 pp.

Neelands, Barbara, S. The Coming of the Reindeer. Lantern Press, New York. 1966.

Palazzo, Tony. Jan and the Reindeer. Garrard Publishing Company, Champaign, Illinois. 1963.

Savage, Alma. Smoozie: The Story of an Alaskan Reindeer Fawn. Sheed and Ward, New York. 1941.

Multi media

Canada's Reindeer. Inuk Films. 1981. 24 minutes.
This film is the story of the famous reindeer trek from Alaska to Canada in 1935. The Canadian government settled the reindeer in the Mackenzie Delta to improve the economic conditions of the Inuit people.

High Tech on the Tundra. Science Times. 2002. 20 minutes.
A recent film describing the herder's plight on the Seward Peninsula as they struggle to keep their reindeer from following the caribou. Features UAF Reindeer Research Program researchers and Nome area residents.

The Herd. National Film Board of Canada. 1999. 100 minutes.
This film traces the story of Andrew Bahr's drive of 3,000 reindeer over 3,000 miles from Alaska to Canada in 1935. What was supposed to take 18 months took 6 years.

The Odyssey of Captain Healy. Waterfront Sounding Productions. 60 minutes.
The story of Mike Healy, the law and order of the Alaska Territory. Captain Healy was instrumental in bringing reindeer to Alaska.

The Reindeer Queen. Waterfront Soundings Productions. 28 minutes.
&The story of Mary Antisarlook, owner of the largest reindeer herd, during the Nome gold rush.

AFES publications

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